Study | Age | Sex | Handedness | Time post onset |
---|---|---|---|---|

Weiller et al. (1995) | N (mean 58 years, range 50-66 years; controls were younger: mean 35 years; range 27-50 years) | Y (6 M/0 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (range 5-117 months) |

Belin et al. (1996) | Y (mean 49.7 years, range 40-58 years) | N | Y (7 R/0 L) | Y (range 15-149 months; including MIT for the most recent 1-108 months) |

Ohyama et al. (1996) | Y (mean 56.6 ± 11.8 years, range 38-75 years) | Y (12 M/4 F) | Y (16 R/0 L) | N* (mean 15.1 ± 16.7 months, range 1.1-50.3 months; a mix of subacute and chronic participants; 8 of each) |

Heiss et al. (1997) | Y (range 33-66 years) | Y (4 M/2 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (T1: ~4 weeks; T2: ~12-18 months) |

Karbe et al. (1998) | N (mean 57 years, range 34-78 years; controls not matched for age) | Y (7 M/5 F); stated to be not matched, but difference not significant | Y (12 R/0 L) | Y (T1: mean 24 ± 11 days, ~3-4 weeks; T2: mean 19 ± 2 months, > 1 year) |

Cao et al. (1999) | Y (range 20-56 years) | Y (1 M/5 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (range 5-32 months) |

Heiss et al. (1999) | Y (mean 56 ± 12 years, range 31-77 years; assume patient's age of 5.6 years is a typo for 56 years) | Y (15 M/8 F) | Y (23 R/0 L) | Y (T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~8 weeks) |

Kessler et al. (2000) | Y (piracetam group: mean 57.4 ± 13.5 years; placebo group: mean 56.3 ± 10.0 years) | Y (13 M/11 F) | Y (24 R/0 L) | Y (T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~8 weeks) |

Rosen et al. (2000) | N (mean 47 years, range 32-72 years; control participants not age-matched) | Y (3 M/3 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (range 0.5-7.6 years) |

Blasi et al. (2002) | N (mean 48.6 years; patients and controls not closely matched for age, unclear if difference significant) | Y (2 M/6 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | N (> 6 months; actual TPO not stated) |

Leff et al. (2002) | Y (range 43-76 years) | Y (11 M/4 F) | Y (11 R/0 L) | Y (range 5-76 months) |

Blank et al. (2003) | Y (POp+: median 50 years, range 36-72 years; POp-: median 61 years, range 39-70 years) | Y (8 M/6 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (POp+: median 39 months, range 19-134 months; POp-: median 17 months, range 6-240 months) |

Cardebat et al. (2003) | Y (mean 58.4 ± 11.9 years, range 37-73 years) | Y (7 M/1 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | N* (T1: 58 ± 35 days, range 11-113 days; T2: 11.7 ± 1.6 months, range 320-460 days; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute) |

Sharp et al. (2004) | Y (median 58 years, range 39-72 years) | Y (8 M/1 F) | Y (9 R/0 L) | Y (mean 45 months, range 14-145 months) |

Zahn et al. (2004) | Y (range 29-67 years) | Y (6 M/1 F) | Y (7 R/0 L) | Y (range 6 months-4 years) |

Crinion & Price (2005) | Y (mean 62 ± 2.7 SEM years, range 34-75 years) | Y (12 M/5 F) | Y (17 R/0 L) | Y (range 4-125 months; aphasia with temporal damage (n=8) mean 41 months; aphasia without temporal damage (n=9) mean 48 months) |

de Boissezon et al. (2005) | Y (mean 52.4 ± 13 years, range 31-69 years) | Y (7 M/0 F) | Y (7 R/0 L) | N* (T1: mean 53 ± 35 days, range 11-108 days; T2: mean 12.2 ± 1.4 months; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute) |

Connor et al. (2006) | N (mean 48.6 years; patients and controls not closely matched for age, unclear if difference significant) | Y (2 M/6 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | N (> 6 months; actual TPO not stated) |

Crinion et al. (2006) | Y (range 32-85 years) | Y (18 M/6 F) | Y (24 R/0 L) | N (mean 32 months, range 2-204 months; combines subacute and chronic patients) |

Saur et al. (2006) | Y (mean 51.9 ± 14.2 years, range 16-68 years) | Y (11 M/3 F) | Y (12 R/1 L) | Y (T1 acute: mean 1.8 days, range 0-4 days; T2 subacute: mean 12.1 days, range 3-16 days; T3 chronic: mean 321 days, range 102-513 days) |

Meinzer et al. (2008) | Y (median 51.0 years, range 19-66 years) | Y (7 M/4 F) | Y (11 R/0 L) | Y (median 32 months; range 6-480 months) |

Raboyeau et al. (2008) | N (mean 53.8 ± 14.7 years; controls were younger) | Y (6 M/4 F) | Y (10 R/0 L) | Y (range 7-102 months) |

Richter et al. (2008) | Y (mean 58.3 years; range 42-73 years) | Y (12 M/4 F) | Y (16 R/0 L) | N (> 12 months; actual TPO not stated) |

de Boissezon et al. (2009) | Y (range 31.2-74.2 years) | Y (12 M/1 F) | Y (13 R/0 L) | N* (T1: mean 64 ± 32 days; T2: mean 11.8 ± 1.4 months; T1 varies considerably from early to late subacute) |

Fridriksson et al. (2009) | Y (mean 58.8 ± 14.7 years, range 33-78 years) | Y (6 M/5 F) | N | Y (range 10-101 months) |

Menke et al. (2009) | Y (range 34-67 years) | Y (5 M/3 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | Y (range 1.8-6.9 years) |

Specht et al. (2009) | N (mean 49 + 14 years, range 30-71 years; controls were younger) | Y (9 M/3 F) | N | N (mean 1.9 ± 1.4 years, range 0.2-3.7 years; one non-chronic patient is included) |

Warren et al. (2009) | N (mean 65.8 ± 2.0 SEM years; controls were younger) | Y (11 M/5 F) | Y (16 R/0 L) | N (mean 28.8 ± 9.2 months SEM; minimum time post onset not reported, but some patients in Crinion et al. (2006) were subacute) |

Chau et al. (2010) | Y (mean 63 ± 10 years, range 56-79 years) | Y (5 M/2 F) | Y (7 R/0 L) | Y (mean 17 ± 8 months, range 8-28 months) |

Fridriksson (2010) | Y (mean 59.7 ± 12.3 years) | Y (12 M/14 F) | N | Y (> 8 months; actual TPO not stated) |

Fridriksson et al. (2010) | Y (mean 61.9 years, range 41-81 years) | N (7 M/8 F); not stated for controls | N | Y (mean 29.7 months, > 6 months) |

Sharp et al. (2010) | Y (median 58 years, range 39-72 years) | Y (8 M/1 F) | Y (9 R/0 L) | Y (mean 45 months, range 14-145 months) |

Thompson et al. (2010) | Y (mean 54 years, range 38-66 years) | Y (5 M/1 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (range 6-146 months) |

Tyler et al. (2010) | Y (mean 54 years, range 33-76 years) | Y (11 M/3 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (mean 7 years, range 1.4-37.3 years) |

van Oers et al. (2010) | Y (mean 53 ± 14 years, range 29-74 years) | Y (4 M/9 F) | N (13 R/0 L); not stated for controls | Y (range 1.3-4.7 years) |

Papoutsi et al. (2011) | Y (mean 56 ± 12 years, range 35-77 years) | Y (11 M/3 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (mean 8 ± 9 years, range 2-40 years) |

Sebastian & Kiran (2011) | Y (range 40-79 years) | N (5 M/3 F); control sex not stated, but reported to be matched | Y (8 R/0 L) | Y (mean 48.3 months, range 30-78 months) |

Szaflarski et al. (2011) | Y (mean 54.4 ± 12.7 years) | Y (4 M/4 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | Y (mean 5.3 ± 3.6 years, > 12 months) |

Tyler et al. (2011) | Y (mean 56 years, range 34-77 years) | Y (11 M/3 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (mean 7 years, > 1.5 years) |

Weiduschat et al. (2011) | Y (range 59-83 years) | Y (5 M/5 F) | Y (10 R/0 L) | Y (range 18-97 days; patients at different subacute stages of recovery) |

Allendorfer et al. (2012) | Y (mean 54.4 ± 9.5 years, range 38-78 years) | Y (9 M/7 F) | Y (16 R/0 L) | Y (mean 3.7 ± 3.5 years, range 0.5-11.4 years) |

Fridriksson et al. (2012a) | Y (mean 56.9 ± 9.2 years, range 45-75 years) | N (9 M/4 F); control sex not matched | Y (12 R/1 L) | Y (mean 63.8 ± 64.3 months, range 10-261 months) |

Fridriksson et al. (2012b) | Y (mean 59.2 years, range 33-81 years) | N (14 M/16 F); not stated for controls | N | Y (mean 51.1 months, range 6-350 months) |

Marcotte et al. (2012) | Y (mean 62 ± 6.0 years, range 50-67 years) | Y (5 M/4 F) | Y (9 R/0 L) | Y (mean 110.2 ± 92.5 months, range 50-300 months) |

Schofield et al. (2012) | Y (range 35.8-90.3 years) | N (16 M/4 F); control sex not stated | N | Y (mean 3.5 years, range 0.6-8.6 years) |

Wright et al. (2012) | Y (mean 57.4 ± 12.5 years) | Y (15 M/6 F) | Y (21 R/0 L) | Y (mean 6.5 ± 7.5 years, > 1.4 years) |

Szaflarski et al. (2013) | Y (recovered: mean 50 ± 13 years; non-recovered: mean 51 ± 13 years) | Y (15 M/12 F) | Y (27 R/0 L) | Y (recovered: mean 2.1 ± 2.1 years; non-recovered: mean 4.9 ± 3.1 years) |

Thiel et al. (2013) | Y (rTMS group: mean 69.8 ± 8.0 years; sham group: mean 71.2 ± 7.8 years) | N | Y (24 R/0 L) | Y (rTMS group: mean 37.5 ± 18.5 days; sham group: mean 50.6 ± 22.6 days) |

Abel et al. (2014) | Y (median 48 years, range 35-74 years) | Y (10 M/4 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (median 41 months, range 11-72 months) |

Benjamin et al. (2014) | Y (intention group: mean 72.1 ± 10.5 years; control group: mean 63.0 ± 9.2 years) | Y (8 M/6 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (intention group: mean 37.4 ± 33.5 months, range 12-87 months; control group: 38.1 ± 37.4 months, range 10-112 months) |

Brownsett et al. (2014) | Y (mean 60 years, range 37-84 years) | Y (11 M/5 F) | Y (16 R/0 L) | Y (mean 4 years, range 6 months-11 years) |

Mattioli et al. (2014) | N (range 37-79 years; control ages not reported, though reported to be matched) | N (7 M/5 F); control sex not stated, but reported to be matched | Y (12 R/0 L) | Y (T1: mean 2.2 ± 1.3 days; T2: mean 16.2 ± 1.3 days; T3: mean 190 ± 25.5 days) |

Mohr et al. (2014) | Y (range 41-76 years) | Y (5 M/1 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (range 17-234 months (including excluded patients)) |

Robson et al. (2014) | Y (mean 70.1 ± 8.7 years, range 59-87 years) | Y (10 M/2 F) | Y (12 R/0 L) | Y (range 7-84 months) |

Szaflarski et al. (2014) | Y (mean 51.8 ± 15.1 years) | Y (18 M/14 F) | N | Y (mean 3.2 ± 3.1 years, > 6 months) |

van Hees et al. (2014) | Y (mean 56.4 + 9.2 years; range 41-69 years) | Y (3 M/5 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | Y (mean 52.3 + 49.8 months; range 17-170 months) |

Abel et al. (2015) | Y (median 48 years, range 35-74 years) | Y (10 M/4 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (median 41 months, range 11-72 months) |

Kiran et al. (2015) | Y (mean 58 years) | Y (7 M/1 F) | N | Y (range 15-157 months) |

Sandberg et al. (2015) | Y (mean 59 years, range 47-75 years) | Y (7 M/3 F) | Y (10 R/0 L) | Y (range 7-134 months) |

Geranmayeh et al. (2016) | Y (mean 62 ± 14 years, range 26-83 years) | N (32 M/21 F); controls were mostly female, unlike patients | Y (50 R/3 L) | Y (mean 111 ± 27 days, range 84-200 days) |

Griffis et al. (2016) | Y (mean 54.4 ± 12.7 years) | Y (4 M/4 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | Y (mean 5.3 ± 3.6 years) |

Sims et al. (2016) | Y (mean 59.7 years, range 48-75 years) | Y (10 M/4 F) | Y (14 R/0 L) | Y (mean 6 years, range 6 months-13 years) |

Darkow et al. (2017) | Y (mean 56.7 ± 10.1 years) | Y (10 M/6 F) | Y (16 R/0 L) | Y (mean 54.3 ± 45.3 months, range 12-169 months) |

Geranmayeh et al. (2017) | Y (mean 59.1 ± 10.8 years, range 39-77 years) | Y (18 M/9 F) | Y (26 R/1 L) | Y (T1: 15 ± 7.6 days (range 5-35 days); T2: 108 ± 26 days (range 87-200 days)) |

Griffis et al. (2017a) | Y (mean 53 ± 15 years, range 23-90 years) | Y (25 M/18 F) | Y (41 R/2 L) | Y (range 1-14 years) |

Griffis et al. (2017b) | Y (mean 53 ± 15 years, range 23-90 years) | Y (25 M/18 F) | Y (41 R/2 L) | Y (range 1-14 years) |

Harvey et al. (2017) | Y (range 47-75 years) | Y (5 M/1 F) | Y (6 R/0 L) | Y (range 6-102 months) |

Nardo et al. (2017) | Y (mean 50 ± 12 years, range 21-67 years) | Y (12 M/6 F) | Y (18 R/0 L) | Y (mean 61 ± 58 months, range 5-264 months) |

Nenert et al. (2017) | Y (CIAT group: mean 58.0 ± 10.6 years; untreated group: mean 50.3 ± 13.3 years) | Y (11 M/8 F) | N (17 R/0 L); 2 patients "atypical": unclear whether L or mixed | Y (CIAT group: mean 60.2 ± 48.9 months; untreated group: mean 41.9 ± 30.0 months; all > 1 year) |

Qiu et al. (2017) | Y (mean 55.9 ± 13.4 years, range 40-70 years) | Y (7 M/3 F) | Y (10 R/0 L) | Y (range 1-3 months) |

Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017a) | Y (mean 59.8 ± 10.0 years) | Y (26 M/13 F) | Y (33 R/4 L); missing for 2 participants | Y (mean 52.9 ± 51.4 months, range 6.3-255.7 months) |

Skipper-Kallal et al. (2017b) | Y (mean 58.8 ± 8.6 years, range 45.7-78.2 years) | Y (19 M/12 F); stated to be not matched, but difference not significant | Y (26 R/3 L) | Y (mean 40.9 ± 36.1 months, 4.9-151.0 months) |

Dietz et al. (2018) | Y (AAC group: range 39-63 years; usual care group: range 47-71 years) | Y (5 M/7 F) | Y (11 R/1 L) | Y (AAC group: range 16-170 months; usual care group: range 38-105 months) |

Hallam et al. (2018) | Y (mean 61 ± 11 years, range 38-80 years) | Y (5 M/9 F) | N | Y (range 11-264 months) |

Nenert et al. (2018) | Y (mean 46 ± 16 years) | Y (9 M/8 F) | N (17 R/0 L); all patients stated to be right handed, but "ambidextrous patients" mentioned on p. 364 | Y (T1: ~2 weeks; T2: ~6 weeks; T3: ~12 weeks; T4: ~26 weeks; T5: ~52 weeks) |

Pillay et al. (2018) | Y (mean 56.4 ± 12.5 years, range 30-80 years) | Y (11 M/10 F) | Y (21 R/0 L) | Y (mean 1134 ± 1491 days, range 180-6732 days) |

Szaflarski et al. (2018) | Y (range 26-66 years) | Y (9 M/3 F) | Y (11 R/1 L) | Y (range 1-12 years) |

van de Sandt-Koenderman et al. (2018) | Y (subacute: mean 51.2 years, range 25-61 years; chronic: mean 54.0 years, range 21-66 years) | Y (5 M/4 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | Y (subacute: range 0.5-3 months; chronic: range 17-40 months) |

van Oers et al. (2018) | Y (mean 67.9 ± 11.4 years, range 46-86 years) | Y (10 M/2 F) | Y (12 R/0 L) | N* (T1: within 2 weeks; T2: ~3 months; T3: ~6 months; T4: ~12 months; specific timing of first time point not stated) |

Barbieri et al. (2019) | N (range 22-73 years; controls were younger) | Y (11 M/7 F) | N (15 R/3 L); not stated for controls | Y (range 13-107 months) |

Johnson et al. (2019) | Y (treated group: mean 62.8 ± 10.2 years, range 42-80 years; untreated group: mean 59.0 ± 11.8 years, range 39-79 years) | Y (21 M/9 F) | Y (27 R/3 L) | Y (treated group: mean 58.3 ± 51.8 months, range 12-170 months; untreated group: mean 85.2 ± 141.9 months, range 10-467 months) |

Kristinsson et al. (2019) | Y (typical BDNF genotype group mean 59.6 ± 11.2 years, range 29-77 years; atypical BDNF genotype group mean 57.7 ± 10.9 years, range 30-76 years) | Y (58 M/29 F) | Y (87 R/0 L) | Y (typical BDNF genotype group: mean 44.0 ± 38.7 months; atypical BDNF genotype group: mean 34.5 ± 36.9 months; all participants > 6 months) |

Purcell et al. (2019) | Y (range 40-80 years) | Y (13 M/8 F) | Y (16 R/3 L) | Y (range 14-209 months) |

Sreedharan et al. (2019b) | N (range 18-68 years; controls were younger) | Y (7 M/1 F) | Y (8 R/0 L) | N (6-22 weeks; patients at different subacute stages of recovery) |

Hartwigsen et al. (2020) | Y (mean 58.8 years, range 43-72 years) | Y (8 M/4 F) | Y (12 R/0 L) | Y (mean 37.9 ± 34.8 months, range 6-122 months) |

Stockert et al. (2020) | Y (frontal group: mean 52.3 ± 18.9 years, range 15-78 years; temporo-parietal group: mean 54.4 ± 12.7 years, range 31-76 years) | Y (25 M/9 F) | N (31 R/2 L); not stated for controls | Y (frontal group: T1 acute: mean 3.2 ± 2.0 days, range 1-7 days; T2 subacute: mean 11.9 ± 2.2 days, range 8-17 days; T3 chronic: mean 272.6 ± 88.5 days, range 181-435 days; temporo-parietal group: T1 acute: mean 1.6 ± 0.8 days, range 1-4 days; T2 subacute: mean 10.1 ± 1.7 days, range 8-13 days; T3 chronic: mean 262.5 ± 75.0 days, range 184-394 days) |